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The female reproductive system can be subdivided into the internal and external genitalia. The internal genitalia are those organs that are within the true pelvis.

The main external structures of the female reproductive system include:

Labia majora: Literally translated as "large lips” this encloses and protect the other external reproductive organs

Labia minora: Literally translated as "small lips, they can be very small they lie just inside the labia majora, and surround the openings to the vagina

The vagina:  (the canal that joins the lower part of the uterus to the outside of the body) and urethra (the tube that carries urine from the bladder to the outside of the body).

Bartholin's glands: These glands are located besides the vaginal opening and produce a fluid (mucus) secretion.

Clitoris: The two labia minora meet at the clitoris, a small, sensitive protrusion that can be compared to the penis in males. The clitoris is covered by a fold of skin, called the prepuce, which is similar to the foreskin at the end of the penis. Like the penis, the clitoris is very sensitive to stimulation and can become erect. Read More


Unlike the female reproductive system, most of the male reproductive system is located outside of the body.
The male reproductive system includes

  • The penis,
  • Scrotum,
  • Testes,
  • Epididymis,
  • Vas deferens,
  • Prostate, and
  • Seminal vesicles.

The penis and the urethra are part of both the urinary and reproductive systems. The male reproductive system is specially designed to produce, maintain, and transport genetic material. It's also an integral system to enhance quality of life.

The reproductive system in males develops in close relation with the urinary tract, and the two are usually thought of as the urogenital system. For example, the testes develop from the gonadal ridge, while the prostate develops from epithelial invaginations in the distal urethra. Therefore, diseases of the genital system may also be associated with disorders of the urinary tract.

The purpose of the organs of the male reproductive system is to perform the following functions:

  • To produce, maintain, and transport sperm (the male reproductive cells) and protective fluid (semen)
  • To discharge sperm within the female reproductive tract during sex
  • To produce and secrete male sex hormones responsible for maintaining the male reproductive system

Read More


The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs in the renal system. They help the body pass waste as urine. They also help filter blood before sending it back to the heart.

The kidneys perform many crucial functions, including:

  • maintaining overall fluid balance
  • regulating and filtering minerals from blood
  • filtering waste materials from food, medications, and toxic substances
  • creating hormones that help produce red blood cells, promote bone health, and regulate blood pressure
  • The kidneys even activate a form of vitamin D that helps the body absorb calcium.

Read More


The digestive system is made up of the Gastrointestinal Tract (variously called the GI tract, or the digestive tract), and the liver, pancreas, and gallbladder. The GI tract is a series of hollow organs that are joined in a long, twisting tube from the mouth to the anus.

The follow organs that make up the GI tract are the mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, and anus with the liver, pancreas, and gallbladder are the solid organs of the digestive system.

The small intestine: Has three parts. The duodenum, the jejunum in the middle with the ileum at the end.

The large intestine: Includes the appendix, cecum, colon, and rectum. The cecum is the first part, the colon is next with the rectum at the end of the large intestine. The appendix is a finger-shaped pouch attached to the cecum.

In every human, there is some bacteria in the GI tract. This is also called gut flora or micro biome, it helps with digestion. Working together, the nerves, hormones, bacteria, blood, and the other organs of the digestive system digest the foods and liquids we eat or drink each day. Read More


Gynaecology is the medical practice dealing with the health of the female reproductive system (vagina, uterus, and ovaries). It is done by a gynaecologist. A gynaecologist  is a doctor who treats women preventatively in the annual exam with a focus on the reproductive system. If health issues arise in the female system, a gynaecologist who is trained to fix it. Typically with office procedures or traditional laparoscopy, often referred to as "straight stick". Gynaecologist fix some problems like; fibroids, edometriosis, ovarian, cysts, prolapse.

A gynaecologist can treat a girl or a woman at any age. ACOG recommend starting to visit a gynaecologist from the age of 13 to 15 years. Building up a relationship with the doctor enables a girl or woman to be more comfortable asking questions about menstruation, sexuality and so on, and provides a point of contact if symptoms occur in future. It also gives the doctor a chance to guide a woman’s overall welfare in the long term, through counseling on important health and lifestyle issues. No results to display!


The human musculoskeletal system organ system that gives humans the ability to move using the muscular and skeletal systems. The musculoskeletal system provides form, support, stability, and movement to the body.

The system is made up of the bones of the skeleton, muscles, cartilage, tendons, ligaments, joints, and other connective tissue that supports and binds tissues and organs together. The musculoskeletal system's primary functions include supporting the body, allowing motion, and protecting vital organs. The skeletal portion of the system serves as the main storage system for calcium and phosphorus and contains critical components of the hematopoietic system.

This system reveals how bones are connected to other bones and muscle fibers via connective tissue such as tendons and ligaments. The bones provide stability to the body. Muscles keep bones in place and also play a role in the movement of bones. To allow motion, different bones are connected by joints. Cartilage prevents the bone ends from rubbing directly onto each other. Muscles contract to move the bone attached at the joint. Read More


The heart is a muscular organ roughly the size of a closed fist. It sits in the chest, slightly to the left of center.

The heart, blood, and blood vessels combined are referred to as the circulatory system. An average human has approximately 5 liters (8 pints) of blood, which is constantly pumped throughout the body, by the heart. As the heart contracts, it pumps blood around the body. It carries deoxygenated blood to the lungs where it loads up with oxygen and unloads carbon dioxide, a waste product of metabolism.

The human heart beats 100,000 times a day. In the process, it pushes 5,000 gallons of blood through the body every 24 hours. It delivers oxygen- and nutrient-rich blood to the tissues and carries away waste.

The heart consists of four chambers:

Atria: The two upper chambers that receive blood.

Ventricles: The two lower chambers that discharge blood.

The left atria and left ventricle are separated from the right atria and right ventricle by a wall of muscle called the septum. Read More


Ear, Nose and Throat (ENT) medicine otherwise referred to as Otorhinolaryngology: is the medical and surgical specialty dedicated to pathologies that affects the ear, nose and throat (which comprises both the larynx and the pharynx).  Illnesses which affect these two areas can lead to symptoms such as deafness or vertigo, and therefore can also be diagnosed by an ENT surgeon. Read More


Pain is a distressing feeling often caused by intense or damaging stimuli. It is widely defined as "an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage, or described in terms of such damage".  In medical diagnosis, pain is regarded as a symptom of an underlying condition.

Pain motivates an individual to withdraw from damaging situations or to protect a damaged body part while it heals. Normally, pain resolves once the noxious stimulus is removed and the body has healed. However pain may persist despite the removal of the stimulus and an apparent healing of the body. The truth is, pain can arise in the absence of any detectable stimulus, damage or disease. Read More


Tropical diseases are diseases that are prevalent in or unique to tropical and subtropical regions. Such diseases are less prevalent in temperate climates, due in part to the occurrence of cold seasons, which controls the insect population by forcing hibernation. The initial impetus for tropical medicine was to protect the health of colonial settlers. Insects such as mosquitoes and flies are by far the most common disease carrier, or vector. These insects may carry a parasite, bacterium or virus that is infectious to humans and animals. Often times, disease is transmitted by insect "bite", which causes transmission of the infectious agent through subcutaneous blood exchange. Human exploration of tropical rainforests, deforestation, rising immigration and increased international air travel and other tourism to tropical regions has led to an increased incidence of such diseases to non-tropical countries. No results to display!


Endocrinology is the study of hormones. Hormones are essential for our everyday survival. They control our temperature, sleep, mood, stress, growth and more. A doctor that treats diseases related to problems with hormones is called an endocrinologist.

A hormone is a chemical messenger that travels from one cell to another. Hormones can be released in one part of the body, travel in the blood stream and have an effect on other parts of the body. This goes to help different parts of the human body to communicate with each other. Hormones are secreted by endocrine glands, such as the pituitary, thyroid or adrenal glands. It is worthy to note that not all glands are classified as endocrine glands; for example, sweat glands or lymph glands are not endocrine glands.

All organisms with more than one cell have hormones, therefore they can be found in plants and animals as well. They influence and or control a whole array of physiological activities, e.g. growth, development, puberty, level of alertness, sugar regulation and appetite, bone growth, etc. Read More


Geriatrics is a specialty that focuses on the health care of elderly people. The aim is to promote health by preventing and treating diseases and disabilities in older adults. There is actually no set age at which patients may be under the care of a geriatrician, or geriatric physician, a physician who specializes in the care of elderly people. Rather, this decision is determined by the individual patient's needs, and the availability of a specialist.

It would be important to note the difference between geriatrics, which is the care of aged people, and gerontology, which is the study of the aging process itself. However, geriatrics is sometimes called medical gerontology. Read More


Pediatrics is the branch of medicine that caters for the medical needs of infants, children, and adolescents. Normally, doctors recommend that people be under pediatric care up to the age of 21.  A medical doctor who specializes in this area is known as a pediatrician, or paediatrician. The word pediatrics mean "healer of children” Pediatricians work in hospitals, particularly those working in its subspecialties (e.g. neonatology), and as outpatient primary care physicians.

There are subsets of pediatric care and each is a subspecialty that addresses specific medical issues and requires a particular set of talents and interests. Read More


Physiotherapy: This is the treatment to restore, maintain, and make the most of a patient’s mobility, function, and well-being. Physiotherapy helps through physical rehabilitation, injury prevention, and health and fitness. Physiotherapists get patients involved in their own recovery.

Physiotherapists focus on both prevention and rehabilitation. Treatment can be for problems that were caused by injury, disease or disability. Read More


Medical imaging is the technique and process of creating visual representations of the interior of a body for clinical analysis and medical intervention, as well as visual representation of the function of some organs or tissues (physiology). Medical imaging reveals internal structures hidden by the skin and bones, so as to diagnose and treat disease. Medical imaging also establishes a database of normal anatomy and physiology to make it possible to identify abnormalities. 

Medical imaging remains one of the best ways to achieve that aim, being able to see what's going on inside the body without the need for surgery or other invasive procedures. Read More

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